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Validity of the CAGE questionnaire in hospital

It’s important to consider which CAGE question has a “yes” answer. Numerous individuals who drank a lot of alcohol the night before might give a “yes” answer to the first CAGE alcohol screen question. However, an individual who needs an “eye-opener” – yes answer on the last question- is a bit more likely to have a serious problem. He is credited with the development of the CAGE questionnaire. Dr. Ewing published his research findings of the use and effectiveness of the questionnaire in 1984, but he is thought to have developed and used the tool as early as 1968. Ashley Olivine is a health psychologist and public health professional with over a decade of experience serving clients in the clinical setting and private practice.

Each yes answer increases the chances that someone may have an alcohol dependency. Generally, two or three yes answers suggest heavy alcohol use or alcohol use disorder. The CAGE Assessment is a personal assessment for substance abuse. Formal diagnosis requires a thorough assessment and evaluation by your doctor. Substance abuse disorder, substance dependence, and substance addiction are disorders.

cage assessment

It is designed for use with other evaluative processes employed by treatment specialists. For each “Yes” answer, 1 point is added to the total score, and for each “No” answer, 0 points are added. A total of 2 points or above for the total score is evaluated as significant and a possible indicator of an alcohol problem. Reliability refers to whether the scores are reproducible. Not all of the different types of reliability apply to the way that the CAGE is typically used.

The CAGE questionnaire

It is an initial step that can be taken by healthcare professionals, or it can be used as a self-assessment tool, to detect the signs of alcohol dependency. The questions on this tool consider not just the current situation of the person, but they apply to their whole life. If surgery is needed in an urgent fashion, patients with known alcohol use disorder should be systematically monitored for evidence of withdrawal.

Most substance abuse criteria include the assessment of a person’s functioning in both individual and social spheres . Furthermore, tolerance and abstinence are perhaps the most important symptoms of addiction, which is assessed by the fourth CAGE question. No, the CAGE questionnaire does not prove someone massachusetts sober living homes is an alcoholic. It is one tool that is used, along with other tools and the help of a qualified healthcare professional, to assess for the possibility of an alcohol use disorder. One reason to avoid self-diagnosis is that people have biases even when attempting to answer the questions subjectively.

I feel like a new person and it gave me power and confidence to move on and be myself again. Steve and Chad helped me to open up and admit that I needed to do this for myself and I couldn’t do it for others. During group meetings I felt comfortable and connected to other people going through the similar situations. It enabled me to express my struggles and feelings about this addiction that I had never shared with anyone.

What Is Substance Abuse?

AddictionResource aims to present the most accurate, trustworthy, and up-to-date medical content to our readers. Our team does their best for our readers to help them stay informed about vital healthcare decisions. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles.

cage assessment

Utilization of an institutional protocol for withdrawal monitoring and treatment should be implemented. Nearly all protocoled patients are initiated on thiamine and folate supplementation with the addition of benzodiazepines or haloperidol based on MAWS and clinical assessment. It is strongly encouraged to quickly transfer patients to higher-level care centers if symptoms of withdrawal worsen. There is ongoing interest in developing laboratory tests that can reliably identify patients with problem drinking. Although not as sensitive as screening questions, they are particularly useful in patients suspected of drinking who deny alcohol use.

Addiction Resource does not favor or support any specific recovery center, nor do we claim to ensure the quality, validity, or effectiveness of any particular treatment center. No one should assume the information provided on Addiction Resource as authoritative and should always defer to the advice and care provided by a medical doctor. CAGE alcohol assessment procedure was developed at North Carolina Memorial Hospital, in 1968. The staff wanted to make a quick assessment tool and make their screening procedures a lot more efficient. The 4 questions of the CAGE assessment tool were chosen from a wider pool of substance abuse examination questions, due to their ability to discern alcoholics from non-alcoholics. The purpose of the CAGE questionnaire is to assess a person’s dependency on alcohol.

CAGE Questionnaire

The total score is obtained by adding the four individual scores together, so it can range from 0 to 4. There’s a strong stigma surrounding alcohol misuse and dependency. This can make it hard for doctors to effectively ask questions about a person’s drinking habits. It’s not always easy for the user to see their symptoms.

They have a lot of experience in this field and have first hand experience with what I was going through. IOP is outstanding and really built up a ton of great relationships and found this program to be a ‘breath of fresh air’. They got a lot of love and empathy and will always go the extra mile to help their clients! When I first called Renassaince Recovery to ask some questions, someone locally answered and spent time with me just talking.

In other words, alcoholics may dissimulate, and try to hide their disorder. This is one of the biggest flaws of the CAGE assessment technique, and it can only be compensated by the introduction of an in-depth clinical interview. The CAGE questionnaire is a screening tool used to assess possible issues with alcohol.

I cannot express in words the positive impact he has had on our life and how grateful I am for him. If you or a loved one is in need of help, please contact Renaissance Recovery. We can accept most health insurance, and we can confirm your coverage for the treatment program at Renaissance with your insurance company for you. Dual Diagnosis Programs for treatment of co-occurring disorders.

  • Learned so much about myself as well as learned I’m not alone in my struggles.
  • They gave me the necessary support and helped me realize that I couldn’t overcome my addiction by myself.
  • I’ve got 11 months and some change of sobriety now, and I owe so much of that to Rennisance.
  • The questions on this tool consider not just the current situation of the person, but they apply to their whole life.
  • Educate yourself about addiction and all it’s complexities.

Because of this format, our group became very close. The combination of treatments and the supportive atmosphere is effective, and leaves many clients wanting more. I am currently enrolled in the aftercare program which meets once a week for two hours. In this group we focus more on strategies for coping and recognizing and diverting signs of relapse in everyday life. I highly recommend this program to anyone who is struggling with addiction.

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The CAGE questionnaire is still one of the most widely used tools for assessing alcohol dependency today. However, it does have limitations, and there are some mixed opinions about its efficacy. Learn about the questionnaire, the purpose, when it is used, how it works, and more.

At a score of 8 or more out of a possible 40, the ability of AUDIT to detect genuine excessive drinkers and to exclude false cases is 92 and 94%, respectively. Thus, AUDIT is a highly accurate tool, which has been validated in a large number of countries with consistently strong psychometric halfway house vs recovery house performance. It is now regarded as the “gold standard” screening tool to detect hazardous and harmful drinking in primary care patients. When AUDIT has been applied in routine primary care, approximately one in five patients screen positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption.

Validity of the CAGE questionnaire in hospital

It was developed by John Ewing, MD, a psychiatrist and professor who practiced in the field of addiction therapy. The CAGE questionnaire is used as an initial assessment before any other questions about alcohol use are asked. It can also be used as a self-assessment tool, but it should not be used to self-diagnose or rule out alcoholism.

CAGE methodology is rather straightforward, the interviewee answers with “yes” or “no”, and the final CAGE score is the number of “yes” answers. Two such answers are regarded as a sufficient prerequisite for further investigation of potential alcoholism. Dr. Ashley Olivine is a health psychologist and public health professional with over a decade of experience serving clients in the clinical setting and private practice.

Treatment plans for alcohol use disorders are developed to fit the needs of the individual and their specific situation. The elements may depend on the severity of the condition and how long it has been an issue. The CAGE questionnaire was adapted to apply to problems with other substances as well, not just alcohol.

Dependency on alcohol—or any substance—is difficult. It is also something that can be treated and managed. If you suspect that you or someone close to you is experiencing alcohol or substance use problems, help is available. Seek the support of a qualified healthcare professional such as a primary care provider, psychologist, psychiatrist, or substance specialist.